Book Review: “Drive” by Daniel Pink

Daniel Pink presented a solid case for his coined phrase of Motivation 3.0 – the new work OS for the new economy and the new knowledge workers. No questions that the world is converging in that direction. He offer good tips for managers and parents how to manage the new generation of employees and children. The audiobook is very well narrated by the author and the ebook fairly comprehensive, full of references and self-help study guide. A summary of the book is as follows:

Part 1: A new operating system: From Motivation 1.0 (survival) to Motivation 2.0 (seek reward and avoid punishment), 2.1 (more autonomy), 3.0 (for heuristic, not algorithmic jobs: intrinsic motivation, open-source movement, taking vocation vacation). Carrots and sticks often don’t work after a threshold is passed. Sawyer effect: “Work consists of whatever a body is OBLIGED to do and that Play consists of whatever a boy is NOT obliged to do.”

7 deadly flaws of carrots and sticks: extinguish intrinsic motivation, diminish performance, crush creativity, crowd out good behavior, encourage cheating, shortcuts, and unethical behavior, become addictive, and foster short-term thinking.

To reward creative work, consider non-tangible rewards (praise and positive feedback are much less corrosive than cash and trophies), provide useful/specific (e.g. “great use of color”) information.

Type I (intrinsic-motivated, concerns less with the external rewards and more with the inherent satisfaction of the activity itself) and Type X (extrinsic-motivated): Human being have an innate inner drive to be autonomous, self-determined, and connected to one another. And when the drive is liberated, people achieve more and live richer lives. Type I behavior is not made, not born, almost ways outperform type X’s in the long run, doesn’t disdain money or recognition, a renewable resource, promote greater physical and mental well-being – ultimately depends on three elements: autonomy, mastery, and purpose.

Part 2: The Three elements: autonomy, mastery, and purpose.
Autonomy: ROWE (results-only work environment): just have to get their work done. How they do it, when they do it, and where they do it is up to them. This era doesn’t call for better management. It calls for a renaissance of self-direction. Type I behavior emerges when people have autonomy over the 4 T’s: their task, time, technique, and team.

Mastery: the desire to get better and better at something that matters
The highest, most satisfying experiences in people’s lives were when they are in flow. The challenge wasn’t too easy nor too difficult. 3 laws of mastery:
Mastery is mindset: use learning goals instead of performance goals, e.g. getting an ‘A’.
Mastery is a pain: it hurts and not much fun – intense practice of more than 10 years – “mundanity of excellence.” “Being a professional is doing the things you love to do, on the days you don’t feel like doing them” – Juilus Erving (Dr. J),
Master is an asymptote: You can approach it, home in on it but you’ll never touch it. The joy is in the pursuit more than the realization.

Purpose provides activation energy for living. Motivation 3.0 places emphasis on purpose maximization in 3 realms of organization life – goals (to pursue purpose – and use profit as the catalyst rather than the objective), words (they vs. we), and policies (handing employees control over how the organization gives back to the community). People who’d had purpose goals felt they were attaining them reported higher leves of satisfaction.

Part 3: The Type I toolkit
Think about your sentence. Take a Sagmeister (sabbatical every 7 years), give yourself a performance review (set small/large goals and how they relate to your larger purpose, be brutally honest), Going Oblique (Link here), Move 5 steps closer to mastery: 1. remember that deliberate practice has one objective: to improve performance, 2. repeat, repeat, repeat, 3. Seek constant, critical feedback, 4. Focus ruthlessly on where you need help, 5. Prepare for the process to be mentally and physically exhausting.
Take a page from Webber (write down “what gets you up in the morning?” and on opposite side “What keeps you up at night?”).
3 steps toward giving up control: 1. involve people in goal-setting, 2. Use noncontrolling language like “think about it,” “consider.” 3. Hold office hours.
Pronounce test: “we” vs. “they.” Promote Goldilocks for Groups: 1. Being with a diverse team, 2. Make your group a “no competition” zone, 3. Try a little task-shifting, 4. Animate with purpose, don’t motivate with rewards.
The zen of compensation: 1. ensure internal and external fairness, 2. pay more than average, 3. If you use performance metrics, make them wide-ranging, relevant, and hard to game.
Type I for parents and educators: 9 ideas for helping our kids:
1. Apply the 3-part type I test for homework (autonomy, mastery, and purpose), 2. Have a Fedex Day, 3. Try DIY report cards, 4. Give your kids an allowance and some chores – but don’t combine them, 5. Offer Praise the Right Way: a. praise effort and strategy, not intelligence, b. make praise specific, c. praise in private, d. offer praise only when there’s a good reason for it. 6. Help kids see the big picture. 7. Check out these type-I schools (Big Picture Learning, Sudbury Valley School, The Tinkering School, Puget Sound Community School, Montessori Schools), 8. Take a class from the unschoolers. 9. Turn students into teachers.
Type I reading list.
Listen to the gurus: 1. Douglas McGregor, 2. Peter F. Drucker, 3. Jim Collins, 4. Cali Ressler, 5 Jody Thompson, 6. Gary Hamel.
Type I Fitness Plan: Set your own goals, Ditch the treadmill, Keep mastery in mind, reward yourself the right way. (