Book Review “The Undoing Project” by Michael Lewis

This is one of the great books written by Michael Lewis, one of my favorite authors. This book covers the friendship between Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, who won the Nobel Prize in Economics on the theory of the mind. To truly appreciate the book, you probably wanted to first read their theory, which you can read a summary from my book review of “Thinking Fast and Slow” here.

In the first chapter of the book, the author tried to bridge the Moneyball book to this book using an NBA analogy and the story of Daryl Morey, the general manager of the Houston Rockets. The objective was to emphasize the work of human judgement biases studied by the two Nobel Prize winners, the two central characters of the book. I was a little confused in the beginning, thinking the book was a sequel to “Moneyball.” But it wasn’t. The book went into great details of how the two men met each other in Israel and how to two men collaborate so well and the fallout of the relationship due to jealousy. But just before the death of Amos to cancer, they reconciled and all was good.

My takeaways are:
– You should be so blessed to find a true soulmate who can challenge your thinking and make you better than you could be without.
– Jealousy always plays a big role in relationships especially in the always-connected world because of Internet and Facebook. Try to avoid falling into the trap. Look farther in your horizon and rise above it to the best of your ability.
– On the other hand, if you’re the more successful one of your team, try to appreciate those who support you. It’s important to acknowledge them when you’ve succeeded.
– “Undoing,” the phrase, is a throwback to the last of the theories the two men worked together, which refers to the peeling back what you could have done or not done and whether that’s logical or not. Almost in all cases, we humans are not logical. There will always time and temptation to “undo” your past actions knowing what you know today. I suggest to not dwell in the past but live in the presence to the best you can. Life is too short.
– The author tries to put the two men’s work in a much plainer terms than all the technical jargon in their research work. For most people, he has succeeded and I thank him for reinforcing their ideas and work.

I enjoy this book because it highlights the “human-ness” on the two men who have somewhat succeeded in explaining human faults and biases.

Book Review: “The Telomere Effect” by Elizabeth Blackburn and Elissa Epel

The book is about the science of aging. It started out with some science how aging process can be measured and go into great details on how to reduce the aging progress and live a healthy life. I recommend this book if you’re interested in living a long, healthy life.

A quick summary:
– Our life can be separated into two stages: “Health Span” and “Disease Span.” The trick is to keep the Disease Span short. If you want to live longer, keep the telomeres long.
– On the cell level, the lengths of the telomeres at the tip of our chromosomes shorten at each level of our cell divisions determine how fast we age and when they die. The telomeres can actually lengthens. Cells reaches a Hayflick limit around 50 times before they stop dividing and die. The longer the telomeres the more times your cells can divide.
– You can think of telomeres as the aglets (as at the tops of the shoe laces) of our chromosomes. The longer they are the less fraying/healthy the chromosomes get. They are the leading indicator of our health Span, hence total life span.
– Short telomeres correlates to heart diseases and lung diseases, cognitive slowing/Alzheimer, and inflammation.
– Increase Telomerase can keep Telomere long or lengthen them. Too much of it would cause cancer though.
– The rest of book is about doing things to keep the telomere healthy:
1) stress management,
2) resilient/positive thinking,
3) anxiety/depression management,
4) right amount of exercises,
5) sufficient sleep,
6) healthy weight (level of belly protrusion and insulin sensitivity),
7) good diets (omega-3s, leafy vegetables, flax oil and flaxseeds), reduce consumption of red meat and processed food, sugary foods and drinks,
8) maintain healthy relationship with our environment, especially our neighborhood,
9) maintain healthy relationship with our loved ones: be appreciative, be present and hug them.
10) for our young ones, support them and practice warm, nurturing environment

In summary, to live a long life we need to pay attentions to all aspects our life, from mental health, the physical health and our living environment. It’s no differenc5 than we already know except now we have a way to measure how well we’re doing – Telomere lengths.

Book Review: “Kill The Rising Run” by Bill O’Reilly and Martin Dugard

Killing the Rising Sun is one of those books that attract people to read about the history. As the saying goes, “those who fail to learn from history are doomed to repeat.” And I sincerely hope the history of World War II would not repeat. World War II didn’t happen too long ago; it was in my parents’ generation when it happened and is still vivid in their memory. We baby boomers and future generations benefited enormously from the sacrifices their generation made. All I knew was US dropped 2 atomic bombs in Japan in retribution to their attack on Pearl Harbor and quickly wrapped up the war. Oh, there were a few skirmishes in between trying to take over some islands for military bases.

Not so quick, there were so many events that happened and so many lives lost on both sides. In this book, the authors wrote a vivid chronology of how the U.S. was involved in World War II, the background stories of the European War, and the how U.S. refocused to fight Japan after that war was wrapped up with Germany’s surrender on May 7, 1945. From the Japanese’s attack on the Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 to the surrender of Japan on September 2, 1945 was a long nearly 4-year war. These days, it’s hard to imagine to be in a war that lasts more than a few days.

Overall, the stories read like a novel but that’s trivializing the many thousands of lives lost. It was riveting and mesmerizing – many of stories were told as observed by real people, instead of describing the general fact. Though we all knew what happened in the end. I kept on listening to the audiobook attentively, lest I missed anything. Very good read and a must read for those we can’t appreciate what good lives we’ve got now.

The book started with the battle of Pelelius, a Japan-occupied island near Philippines. This was the MacArthur’s triumphant return on his way to retake Philippines. On chapter 3, Harry Truman, a humble Missouri native came into the picture as the Vice President, after helping FDR re-elected. Quickly, the story moved toward the last year of the World War II when German’s surrender is almost secured when FDR gave away East Europe to Stalin of Russia and putting his focus on fighting Japan. Then MacArthur retook Philippines as the Iwo Jima battle was being concluded around February and March of 1945. These were important battle fronts that paved the way for US to get close to Japan for dropping the Atomic Bombs. Starting from Chapter 9 (about one third of the book), Truman inherited the US Presidency from FDR then the spotlight of the story was on the Atomic Bombs: the development and testing and the final drops. The fall of Okinawa on June 23, 1945, set up the final stage of the invasion of Japan that MacArthur wanted but it’s not up to him. There was a detailed description of the events leading to the sinking of USS Indianapolis by Japan’s I-58 submarine. Finally, the two Atomic Bombs: Little Boy and Fan Man sealed the fate of Japan’s surrender.

Key takeaways:
– The book started with a letter by Albert Einstein to Franklin Roosevelt on a potential weapon that could be made using his Relativity Theory in triggering in splitting an atom (E= MC^2). FDR almost didn’t get it until the second time he heard about it. The Manhattan project was seeded on October 12, 1939 – almost 6 years before the bombs were dropped in Japan. Ironically, Einstein’s was never invited to the Manhattan Project to build the Atomic bomb because his “security” risk.

– The story about General MacArthur was less than flattering. I knew a little about his insubordination from the book Truman by David McCullough. It’s very clear that both FDR and Truman hated his guts. I don’t blame Truman though and would do the same thing by giving him a cold shoulder and not notifying of the A-bomb until a few days before they were dropped. MacArthur was famous for making grand shows in the public by having his “return” photographed and his towering photo over Emperor Hirohito after the war ended.

– It appears the premise of God-given “superior race” armed the German and Japanese soldiers with great courage and brutality against the “other inferior” races. It’s pretty sad that humans or the power, like the Japanese Emperor, propagated such myths to stay in the power. From these historical facts, shouldn’t we name racism as the source of all wars and evils?

– Kamikaze, the suicide planes, changed the war tactics. It’s very difficult to fight people or terrorism for that matter when your enemy is willing to commit suicide to win. This was a big headache for US Navy at that time. Many ships were destroyed as a result.

– The firebombs consists of cylinders of napalms destroyed a big parts of the cities including Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, and Kawasaiki and more than a million residents lost. but they didn’t make the same impact as the Atomic Bombs.

– The torpedo and sinking of of USS Indianapolis by a no-name Japanese submarine I-58 was rather ironic. USS Indianapolis carried the Little Boy atomic bomb to Tinian island before being sunk on its way to Manila. The rescue mission was accidental – how do you lose a battleship without people’s being aware of it? It’s a little Japanese victory that didn’t turn the tide for Japan but Charles McVay, the captain at helm, paid the price by committing suicide 23 years later.

– The second atomic bomb, Fat Man, was made for a Hollywood movie. The Bockscar B-29 plane couldn’t find its target and moved to Nagasaki target instead. It almost didn’t make it as back as it ran out of fuel upon its arrival at Okinawa – couldn’t even taxi off. And then the bomb was falsely activated in the air. So much excitement. At the end, it did its job of convincing Japan to surrender itself.

– The capture of Hideki Tojo at his farmhouse, despite his own failed suicide, a bullet that missed most of his critical organs, was an interesting, ironic story. He was later hanged for his war crimes.

– Emperor Hirohito escaped any war crime committed throughout the war was simply amazing to me. How MacArthur orchestrated the saving of his God-like face in front of the Japanese people, citing him as the stability factor. To me, that’s an oversight and atrocity.

– Russian’s invasion into China’s Manchuria and declaring war against Japan helped forcing Japan’s unconditional surrender. Later, it turned over the territory to the Communist China and contributed the demise of Chiang Kai Shek’s KMT.

Book Review: “Homegoing” by Yaa Gyasi

Reading Homegoing is like eating at a Chinese banquet with 14 courses but each course could fill you up by by itself. And yet at the end, you feel completely satisfied, emotionally and intellectually enriched with what the black/negro human race went through last two hundred and fifty years or so. It’s like the modern version of “Roots” the movie and yet seem more realistic and multi-faceted like video recording the progressive scenes in many angles. The author captures the emotions with good usages of metaphors and descriptions, which in turn moves the readers in profound ways. Each of chapters or stories constitutes one episode of a series of 14 episodes. I can’t wait to see someone make them into a TV series.

The stories are hard to follow in the beginning as they happened about two hundred years ago and alternated between two genealogies, Effia and Esi the two half sisters, for which a genealogy chart on the first page comes in handy to reference occasionally during my reading book and listening to the audiobook. The audiobook narrated by Dominic Hoffman is fantastic with his slight African accent that seem to take on each character with fidelity.

I don’t usually read novels but this novel is a real treat even if you’re just remotely interested in the history of the negro race because in many ways they are stories of the underprivileged to nth degree. If the book doesn’t move you, then you’re either too stone-hearted to be in a human race or too numbed to feel the pain. To the most of us, I highly recommend this book.

Spoiler Alert: Stop here if you plan to read this book.
My key take-aways:
– The horrific condition of stacking hundreds of captured women slaves in the dungeon underneath the castle seem unbelievable. But it’s not surprising given the cruelty of slavery in itself.
– In fact, the slavery was already a common practice among the African tribes before the Whites started taking the black slavery and perhaps among the different white ethnics speak to the degree of cruelty the humans are capable of imposing. The roles of the black themselves contributing to the slavery was also explicit.
– During the Civil War, the awkward status of the blacks between the slave states and free states were captured in the book. Any black person can be kidnapped to be a slave in the southern slave states seem incredible to me. But that happened often as highlighted in two-shovel H’s story, who was falsely imprisoned in Pratt City, Alabama and turned into slaves digging in coal mines.
– Sometimes the betrayal of someone you love hurts no less than the hurt from the whites as in the case of Robert, the mostly white husband, to Willie, a religious, self-determined daughter of H.
– The underprivileged tend to be in a constant state of helplessness and get trapped in the drug abuse as in Sonny’s story. He could blame on abandonment of his father. But through the love and care of his mother, Willie and his son, Marcus, Sonny eventually won over drug abuse though precariously.
– Akua, the crazy woman, burned down her family hut because of her hallucination about this fire woman. Two of her children were burned to death and she was exiled out of the village after her husband, Asamoah the handicapped warrior stood out for her to save her life. Her son, Yaw, was sent to a remote place for schooling and came back to reunite with her after being a history teacher at his middle age. This story is a bit mystical but still believable.
– Yaw’s line of genealogy stayed in Ghana, Africa until he emigrated to Africa so you get a feel for what’s happening in Africa struggling for independence from England, while the other genealogy had descended from the slaves kidnapped to America struggling against injustice. The contrast between the two is interesting.
– I knew from the chart that there are two genealogies that will come together at the end. This kept me anxious to how the book will end. And I was not disappointed. The fear of fire and the fear of the water come together so beautifully at the end is a master piece.

Once again, the book offers a full course of history, vile human natures, and hope. And I am hopeful for the future of human race.

A few interesting youtube videos with the author Yaa Gyasi:

Book Review: “Gut: The Inside Story of Our Body’s Most Underrated Organ” by Giulia Enders

Giulia Enders, the author of this book Gut, really spilled out her gut about our gut, which by her words was the most underrated organ in human bodies. And if you read this book like I did, you’ll agree.

I learned many things about our gut or gastrointestinal systems. For examples,
– Pooing involves quite a few plumbing and process steps; the coordination between the inner sphincter and outer sphincter (the anus) is quite an amazing feat. The book also has a chapter on feces – shapes, types and colors. Everything you want to know about it.
– The two little bumps on the cheeks and two below your tongue secrete saliva to digest the food. The saliva contains pain killer that may explain why we get comforted or analgesic effect when we chew gum or anything at all.
– Bad breath is often caused by tonsil stone.
– The shape of the stomach is such that the food can go down smoothly without backing up when we laugh or talk and liquid food can get out to the small intestine on fast track. But as a result it traps gas that we need to burp out.
– The surface area, especially the small intestine, is roughly 100 times larger than our skin. This is so we can absorb every bit of the nutrients.
– Cooking breaks down or “unfold” the protein to save our stomach from doing the work.
– Our appendix provides immunity cells to fight bad bacteria and also store good bacteria.Of course, it often become a victim of infection that resulted in appendicitis.
– Medicine can take effect faster when absorbed through the last few inches of our large intestine (colon) through the use of the suppository because it won’t go through liver to get filtered out.
– Fat goes through the lymphatic vessels straight to the heart before gets pumped into the blood before getting to liver to be absorbed. This is why eating “good” fat like extra virgin olive oil helps to reduce blood vessel clotting.
– Don’t use olive oil on frying pan as the heat may alter its fine characteristics. Use butter or coconut oil instead because they are most stable under heat despite its saturated fat.
– Soy and quinoa are two plants that contain complete amino acid.
– There are two nervous systems: one controlled by our brain and the other of the gut that control the “smooth” muscle system without our knowing it. Reflux is a symptom of the two nervous systems stumbles upon each other.
– Vomiting is an act that takes coordination of all the organs within our gut in reverse order. Not many animals are capable of vomiting. It’s one of our survival advantage.
– Extra risk taking behavior could be attributed to a certain bacteria in our gut. This could be a frontier for the insurance industry and privacy issue.
– The gut receives a lot of sensor information and provides us the “big picture,” hence playing a huge role in how we perceive the world through insula- sometimes more so than our brain. Also, it plays a huge role in how we feel emotionally.
– Part III covers the microbes in our gut system. There is a lot of information. But it boils down to good and bad bacteria. Good bacteria help us digest the food and convert to vitamins and keep the bad bacteria at bay. The bad bacteria made us sick but it also train our body to come up with a defense mechanism – the immunity cells.
– The book was written in humorous ways especially the illustrations by her sister.

There are three parts to this book:
1) Gut Feeling, where she covers an overview of the gut system and quickly discussed how things go in, and come out and what happen in between.
2) The nervous system of the gut: the amazing orchestration between the gut, the brain and the rest of the human organs.
3) The world of the microbes: the microbes play huge roles in human’s absorption of nutrients and immunity system. Many of the causes and effects are still unknown and under research.

Though the author is German, the book is well written in English and with good humor and great illustration from her sister. I highly recommend this book.

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